top of page
Image by Sumner Mahaffey


The following peer-reviewed research references are just a small collection of the research that currently exists regarding the ingredients in BioMind. The selected research only highlights the cognitive-supporting effects, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and safety profiles of the ingredients in BioMind. Any mention of these ingredients in conjunction with any medically recognized disease or illness process in the following research is unintended. The safety studies under each ingredient may include actual medical trials for various real diseases, however the focus of presenting these studies are for the safety conclusions regarding each ingredient. These ingredients and this product are not intended to dignose, treat, prevent, or cure any disease or illness.*

indian forest.jpg

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)


1. Choudhary, D., Bhattacharyya, S., & Bose, S. (2017). Efficacy and safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) root extract in improving memory and cognitive functions. Journal of dietary supplements, 14(6), 599-612. 

2. Pingali U, Pilli R, Fatima N. Effect of standardized aqueous extract of Withania somnifera on tests of cognitive and psychomotor performance in healthy human participants. Pharmacognosy Res. 2014;6(1):12-18. doi:10.4103/0974-8490.122912. 

3. Wadhwa, R.; Konar, A.; Kaul, S.C. (2015). “Nootropic potential of Ashwagandha leaves: Beyond traditional root extracts”. Neurochemistry International 2015: 1-10. doi:10.1016/j.neuint.2015.09.001. 


1. Dongre S, Langade D, Bhattacharyya S. Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) Root Extract in Improving Sexual Function in Women: A Pilot Study. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:284154. doi:10.1155/2015/284154.

2. Langade D, Kanchi S, Salve J, Debnath K, Ambegaokar D. Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) Root Extract in Insomnia and Anxiety: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study. Cureus. 2019;11(9):e5797. Published 2019 Sep 28. doi:10.7759/cureus.5797.

3. Paul, S., Chakraborty, S., Anand, U., Dey, S., Nandy, S., Ghorai, M., ... & Dey, A. (2021). Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Ashwagandha): A comprehensive review on ethnopharmacology, pharmacotherapeutics, biomedicinal and toxicological aspects. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 143, 112175.

Click here for more research


(Bacopa monnieri)


1. Downey, L.A.; Kean, J.; Nemeh, F.; Lau, A.; Poll, A.; Gregory, R.; et al. (2013). “An Acute, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study of 320 mg and 640 mg Doses of a Special Extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI08) on Sustained Cognitive Performance”. Phytotherapy Research 27(2013): 1407-13. doi:10.1002/ptr.4864. 

2. Kongkeaw, C.; Dilokthornsakul, P.; Thanarangasarit, P.; Limpeanchob, N.; Scholfield, C.N. (2014). “Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on cognitive effects of Bacopa monnieri extract”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 151(2014): 528-35. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.008. 

3. Kumar, N., Abichandani, L. G., Thawani, V., Gharpure, K. J., Naidu, M. U. R., & Venkat Ramana, G. (2016). Efficacy of standardized extract of Bacopa monnieri (Bacognize®) on cognitive functions of medical students: a six-week, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2016. 

4. Pase, M.P.; Kean, J.; Sarris, J.; Neale, C.; Scholey, A.B.; Stough, C. (2012). “The Cognitive-Enhancing Effects of Bacopa monnieri: A Systematic Review of Randomized, Controlled Human Clinical Trials”. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 18(7): 647-52. doi:10.1089/acm.2011.0367. 

5. Peth-Nui, T., Wattanathorn, J., Muchimapura, S., Tong-Un, T., Piyavhatkul, N., Rangseekajee, P., ... & Vittaya-Areekul, S. (2012). Effects of 12-week Bacopa monnieri consumption on attention, cognitive processing, working memory, and functions of both cholinergic and monoaminergic systems in healthy elderly volunteers. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012. 

6. Sukumaran, N. P., Amalraj, A., & Gopi, S. (2019). Neuropharmacological and cognitive effects of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst–A review on its mechanistic aspects. Complementary therapies in medicine, 44, 68-82. 



1. Chaudhari K, S, Tiwari N, R, Tiwari R, R, Sharma R, S: Neurocognitive Effect of Nootropic Drug Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) in Alzheimer's Disease. Ann Neurosci 2017;24:111-122. doi: 10.1159/000475900.

2. Deb, D. D., Kapoor, P., Dighe, R. P., Padmaja, R., Anand, M. S., D'souza, P., ... & Agarwal, A. (2008). In vitro safety evaluation and anticlastogenic effect of BacoMind™ on human lymphocytes. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 21(1), 7-23.

3. Sireeratawong S, Jaijoy K, Khonsung P, Lertprasertsuk N, Ingkaninan K. Acute and chronic toxicities of Bacopa monnieri extract in Sprague-Dawley rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Jul 27;16:249. doi: 10.1186/s12906-016-1236-4. PMID: 27460904; PMCID: PMC4962406.


Click here for more research

bali terraced field.jpg

Holy Basil
(Ocimum tenuiflorum


1. Kusindarta, D. L., Wihadmadyatami, H., Jadi, A. R., Karnati, S., Lochnit, G., Hening, P., ... & Purwaningrum, M. (2018). Ethanolic extract Ocimum sanctum. Enhances cognitive ability from young adulthood to middle aged mediated by increasing choline acetyl transferase activity in rat model. Research in veterinary science, 118, 431-438. 

2. Kusindarta DL, Wihadmadyatami H, Haryanto A. Ocimum sanctum Linn. stimulate the expression of choline acetyltransferase on the human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells. Vet World. 2016;9(12):1348-1354. doi:10.14202/vetworld.2016.1348-1354. 

3. Sampath, S., Mahapatra, S. C., Padhi, M. M., Sharma, R., & Talwar, A. (2015). Holy basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) leaf extract enhances specific cognitive parameters in healthy adult volunteers: A placebo controlled study. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol, 59(1), 69-77. 



​1. Baliga, M. S., Rao, S., Rai, M. P., & D’souza, P. (2016). Radio protective effects of the Ayurvedic medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum Linn.(Holy Basil): a memoir. Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, 12(1), 20.

2. Chandrasekaran, C. V., Srikanth, H. S., Anand, M. S., Allan, J. J., Viji, M. H., & Amit, A. (2013). Evaluation of the mutagenic potential and acute oral toxicity of standardized extract of Ocimum sanctum (OciBest™). Human & experimental toxicology, 32(9), 992-1004.

3. Jamshidi N, Cohen MM. The clinical efficacy and safety of tulsi in humans: A systematic review of the literature. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2017;2017:9217567. Doi:10.1155/2017/9217567.

Click here for more research


Lion’s Mane
(Hericium erinaceus


1. Brandalise, F., Cesaroni, V., Gregori, A., Repetti, M., Romano, C., Orrù, G., ... & Rossi, P. (2017). Dietary supplementation of Hericium erinaceus increases mossy fiber-CA3 hippocampal neurotransmission and recognition memory in wild-type mice. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2017. 

2. Martínez-Mármol, Ramón, et al. "Hericerin derivatives from hericium erinaceus exert bdnf-like neurotrophic activity in central hippocampal neurons and enhance memory." bioRxiv (2020): 2020-08.

3. Ratto, D., Corana, F., Mannucci, B., Priori, E. C., Cobelli, F., Roda, E., ... & Rossi, P. (2019). Hericium erinaceus improves recognition memory and induces hippocampal and cerebellar neurogenesis in frail mice during aging. Nutrients, 11(4), 715. 

4. Saitsu, Y., Nishide, A., Kikushima, K., Shimizu, K., & Ohnuki, K. (2019). Improvement of cognitive functions by oral intake of Hericium erinaceus. Biomedical Research, 40(4), 125-131.  



1. Lakshmanan H, Raman J, David P, Wong KH, Naidu M, Sabaratnam V. Haematological, biochemical and histopathological aspects of Hericium erinaceus ingestion in a rodent model: A sub-chronic toxicological assessment. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Dec 24;194:1051-1059. Doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.10.084. Epub 2016 Nov 2. PMID: 27816657.

2. Lee, L. Y., Li, I. C., Chen, W. P., Tsai, Y. T., Chen, C. C., & Tung, K. C. (2019). Thirteen-Week Oral Toxicity Evaluation of Erinacine Aenriched Lion’s Mane Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium Erinaceus (Agaricomycetes), Mycelia in Sprague-Dawley Rats. International journal of medicinal mushrooms, 21(4).

3. Li IC, Chen YL, Lee LY, Chen WP, Tsai YT, Chen CC, Chen CS. Evaluation of the toxicological safety of erinacine A-enriched Hericium erinaceus in a 28-day oral feeding study in Sprague-Dawley rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2014 Aug;70:61-7. Doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2014.04.040. Epub 2014 May 6. PMID: 24810469.

4. Li, I. C., Chen, Y. L., Chen, W. P., Lee, L. Y., Tsai, Y. T., Chen, C. C., & Chen, C. S. (2014). Genotoxicity profile of erinacine A-enriched Hericium erinaceus mycelium. Toxicology reports, 1, 1195-1201.


Click here for more research

Russian mountains.jpg

Panax Ginseng (Panax ginseng


1. Kennedy, David O., A. B. Scholey, and Keith A. Wesnes. "Dose dependent changes in cognitive performance and mood following acute administration of Ginseng to healthy young volunteers." Nutritional Neuroscience 4.4 (2001): 295-310.

2. Ossoukhova, Anastasia, et al. "Improved working memory performance following administration of a single dose of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) to healthy middle‐age adults." Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental 30.2 (2015): 108-122.

3. Reay, Jonathon L., Andrew B. Scholey, and David O. Kennedy. "Panax ginseng (G115) improves aspects of working memory performance and subjective ratings of calmness in healthy young adults." Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental 25.6 (2010): 462-471.

4. Seo, Ji Yeon, et al. "Neuroprotective and cognition-enhancing effects of compound K isolated from red ginseng." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 64.14 (2016): 2855-2864.

5. Yeo HB, Yoon HK, Lee HJ, Kang SG, Jung KY, Kim L. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng on Cognitive and Motor Function: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial. J Ginseng Res. 2012;36(2):190-197. doi:10.5142/jgr.2012.36.2.190.  


​1. Kim, Y. S., Woo, J. Y., Han, C. K., & Chang, I. M. (2015). Safety analysis of panax ginseng in randomized clinical trials: a systematic review. Medicines, 2(2), 106-126.

2. Lee NH, Yoo SR, Kim HG, Cho JH, Son CG. Safety and tolerability of Panax ginseng root extract: a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial in healthy Korean volunteers. J Altern Complement Med. 2012;18(11):1061-1069. doi:10.1089/acm.2011.0591.

3. Lee, N. H., & Son, C. G. (2011). Systematic review of randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of ginseng. Journal of acupuncture and meridian studies, 4(2), 85-97.

4. Shen L, Gwak SR, Joo JC, Song BK, Cha SW, Song YU, Pyo MK, Park SJ. Effectiveness and Safety of Panax ginseng Extract on Hepatic Dysfunction: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2020 Jul 16;2020:2689565. doi: 10.1155/2020/2689565. PMID: 32724321; PMCID: PMC7381953.

Click here for more research

asia forest pine trees.jpg

Pine Bark
(Pinus massoniana

japanese maple.jpg

(Ganoderma lucidum


​1. Kapysheva, Unzira, et al. "Influence of Mushroom-Basidiomycetes Ganoderma Lucidum on the Cognitive Function of Man." European Journal of Medicine. Series B 3 (2016): 84-89.

2. Khatian, Najeeb, and Muhammad Aslam. "Effect of Ganoderma lucidum on memory and learning in mice." Clinical Phytoscience 5.1 (2019): 1-8.

3. Lin, Zhibin, and Aoyi Deng. "Antioxidative and free radical scavenging activity of Ganoderma (Lingzhi)." Ganoderma and health: Pharmacology and clinical application (2019): 271-297.

4. Wang, Ming-Fu, et al. "Effects of Ganoderma on aging and learning and memory ability in senescence accelerated mice." International congress series. Vol. 1260. Elsevier, 2004.



1. Chu, T., Benzie, I., Lam, C., Fok, B., Lee, K., & Tomlinson, B. (2012). Study of potential cardioprotective effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi): Results of a controlled human intervention trial. British Journal of Nutrition, 107(7), 1017-1027. doi:10.1017/S0007114511003795.

2. Cizmarikova, M. (2017). The efficacy and toxicity of using the lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Agaricomycetes), and its products in chemotherapy. International journal of medicinal mushrooms, 19(10).

3. Klupp, N. L., Kiat, H., Bensoussan, A., Steiner, G. Z., & Chang, D. H. (2016). A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of Ganoderma lucidum for the treatment of cardiovascular risk factors of metabolic syndrome. Scientific reports, 6(1), 1-10.

4. Sharma, P., Tulsawani, R., & Agrawal, U. (2019). Pharmacological effects of Ganoderma lucidum extract against high‐altitude stressors and its subchronic toxicity assessment. Journal of food biochemistry, 43(12), e13081.

5. Smina, T. P., Mathew, J., Janardhanan, K. K., & Devasagayam, T. P. A. (2011). Antioxidant activity and toxicity profile of total triterpenes isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst occurring in South India. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology, 32(3), 438-446.


Click here for more research

(Rhodiola rosea

chinese forest.jpg
black pepper plant.jpg
black pepper plant.jpg

Black Pepper /Piperine
(Piper nigrum)


1. Chopra, B., Dhingra, A. K., Kapoor, R. P., & Prasad, D. N. (2016). Piperine and its various physicochemical and biological aspects: A review. Open Chemistry Journal, 3(1). 

2. Di, X., Wang, X., & Liu, Y. (2015). Effect of piperine on the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of emodin in rats. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, 115, 144-149. 

3. Haq, I. U., Imran, M., Nadeem, M., Tufail, T., Gondal, T. A., & Mubarak, M. S. (2021). Piperine: a review of its biological effects. Phytotherapy Research, 35(2), 680-700. 

4. Hithamani, G., & Srinivasan, K. (2017). Bioavailability of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) phenolic compounds in rat as influenced by co-administered piperine. Food bioscience, 19, 101-109. 

5.  Johnson, J. J., Nihal, M., Siddiqui, I. A., Scarlett, C. O., Bailey, H. H., Mukhtar, H., & Ahmad, N. (2011). Enhancing the bioavailability of resveratrol by combining it with piperine. Molecular nutrition & food research, 55(8), 1169-1176. 

6. Lee, S. H., Kim, H. Y., Back, S. Y., & Han, H. K. (2018). Piperine-mediated drug interactions and formulation strategy for piperine: Recent advances and future perspectives. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology, 14(1), 43-57. 

7. Meghwal, M., & Goswami, T. K. (2013). Piper nigrum and piperine: an update. Phytotherapy Research, 27(8), 1121-1130. 

8. Singh, A., & Deep, A. (2011). Piperine: a bioenhancer. International Journal of Pharmacy Research and Technology, 1(1), 01-05. 

9. Stojanović-Radić, Z., Pejčić, M., Dimitrijević, M., Aleksić, A., V Anil Kumar, N., Salehi, B., ... & Sharifi-Rad, J. (2019). Piperine-A Major Principle of Black Pepper: A review of its bioactivity and studies. Applied Sciences, 9(20), 4270. 

10. Tiwari, A., Mahadik, K. R., & Gabhe, S. Y. (2020). Piperine: A comprehensive review of methods of isolation, purification, and biological properties. Medicine in Drug Discovery, 7, 100027. 

11. Yu, D., Kan, Z., Shan, F., Zang, J., & Zhou, J. (2020). Triple strategies to improve oral bioavailability by fabricating coamorphous forms of ursolic acid with piperine: Enhancing water-solubility, permeability, and inhibiting cytochrome p450 isozymes. Molecular Pharmaceutics, 17(12), 4443-4462. 

12. Zhao-Hui, J. I. N., Wen, Q. I. U., Hui, L. I. U., Jiang, X. H., & Ling, W. A. N. G. (2018). Enhancement of oral bioavailability and immune response of Ginsenoside Rh2 by co-administration with piperine. Chinese journal of natural medicines, 16(2), 143-149. 


1. Bastaki, M., Aubanel, M., Bauter, M., Cachet, T., Demyttenaere, J., Diop, M. M., ... & Taylor, S. V. (2018). Absence of adverse effects following administration of piperine in the diet of Sprague-Dawley rats for 90 days. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 120, 213-221.

2. Chinta, G., B Syed, S., Coumar, M. S., & Periyasamy, L. (2015). Piperine: a comprehensive review of pre-clinical and clinical investigations. Current Bioactive Compounds, 11(3), 156-169.

3. Derosa, G., Maffioli, P., & Sahebkar, A. (2016). Piperine and its role in chronic diseases. Anti-inflammatory nutraceuticals and chronic diseases, 173-184.

4. Elnaggar, Y. S., Etman, S. M., Abdelmonsif, D. A., & Abdallah, O. Y. (2015). Intranasal piperine-loaded chitosan nanoparticles as brain-targeted therapy in Alzheimer's disease: optimization, biological efficacy, and potential toxicity. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 104(10), 3544-3556.

5. Prakash Singh, K Shrman, RK Sharma, NS Meena, Nitesh Kumar, Kamal Kishor. Safety assessment of piperine after oral administration in sirohi goats. J Entomol Zool Stud 2021;9(1):753-755.

6. Smilkov, K., Ackova, D. G., Cvetkovski, A., Ruskovska, T., Vidovic, B., & Atalay, M. (2019). Piperine: old spice and new nutraceutical?. Current pharmaceutical design, 25(15), 1729-1739.

Click here for more research

bottom of page